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. others have operators -- what operators like to call a science fiction movie. that is deliberate. it are modeled after science fiction in order to appeal to the network engineers that are deciding where to put their network connections and where to connect to other networks. when you walk in, it is a bit like walking into a machine. the buildings are incredibly loud and cold from the air- conditioners that keep the machines cool. you cannot see the ceiling. there are usually cages around. big steel cages about half the size of a hotel room. each belongs to a network. that is where they keep the equipment securely. they interconnect aims that way. that is the physical connection. >> when you look at the infrastructure of the wires of the internet, what are those wires made of? >> the predominately centers of the internet, the most important places are fiber-optic cables. there often yellow jumper cables. inside of them are strands of glass. inside of that glass our pulses of light. nano second morse code that can carry a baseline of about 10 gigabits or second of data. maybe 10,00
. >> have there been environmental science associated with these data centers? >> absolutely. we have a whole chapter on the case of the amazon in northern virginia. amazon was assessed large fines. it was around $200,000. that is very high in the world. you do not see find that high very often. -- fines that high very often. they were not getting the environmental permits for those generators. they were running them and causing emissions without getting the proper permits. they tell me they have now obtained those permits in northern virginia. that is what amazon told me when i contacted them for this story. >> james glanz, the quincy experience, how is it that quincy has become a growth area for these data centers? >> that's right. half a dozen. yahoo is right there. microsoft is the biggest. these data centers tend to cluster. part of the reason is that if energy prices are low, you'll get a lot of these data centers coming in. but you have other factors that come into play. one is connectivity to the fiber-optic. there is a lot of fiber optic in quincy. other things like tax break
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